Title : How the OpenBSD -stable packages are built
Date : 29 October 2020
Tags : openbsd
In this long blog post, I will write about the technical details
of the OpenBSD stable packages building infrastructure. I have setup
the infrastructure with the help of Theo De Raadt who provided me
the hardware in summer 2019, since then, OpenBSD users can upgrade
their packages using `pkg_add -u` for critical updates that has
been backported by the contributors. Many thanks to them, without
their work there would be no packages to build. Thanks to pea@ who
is my backup for operating this infrastructure in case something
happens to me.
**The total lines of code used is around 110 lines of shell.**
## Original design
In the original design, the process was the following. It was done
separately on each machine (amd64, arm64, i386, sparc64).
### Updating ports
First step is to update the ports tree using `cvs up` from a cron
job and capture its output. **If** there is a result, the process
continues into the next steps and we discard the result.
With CVS being per-directory and not using a database like git or
svn, it is not possible to "poll" for an update except by verifying
every directory if a new version of files is available. This check
is done three time a day.
### Make a list of ports to compile
This step is the most complicated of the process and weights for a
third of the total lines of code.
The script uses `cvs rdiff` between the cvs release and stable
branches to show what changed since release, and its output is
passed through a few grep and awk scripts to only retrieve the
"pkgpaths" (the pkgpath of curl is **net/curl**) of the packages
that were updated since the last release.
From this raw output of cvs rdiff:
File ports/net/dhcpcd/Makefile changed from revision 1.80 to 220.127.116.11
File ports/net/dhcpcd/distinfo changed from revision 1.48 to 18.104.22.168
File ports/net/dnsdist/Makefile changed from revision 1.19 to 22.214.171.124
File ports/net/dnsdist/distinfo changed from revision 1.7 to 126.96.36.199
File ports/net/icinga/core2/Makefile changed from revision 1.104 to 188.8.131.52
File ports/net/icinga/core2/distinfo changed from revision 1.40 to 184.108.40.206
File ports/net/synapse/Makefile changed from revision 1.13 to 220.127.116.11
File ports/net/synapse/distinfo changed from revision 1.11 to 18.104.22.168
File ports/net/synapse/pkg/PLIST changed from revision 1.10 to 22.214.171.124
The script will produce:
From here, for each pkgpath we have sorted out, the sqlports database
is queried to get the full list of pkgpaths of each packages, this
will include all packages like flavors, subpackages and multipackages.
This is important because an update in `editors/vim` pkgpath will
trigger this long list of packages:
[...40 results hidden for readability...]
Once we gathered all the pkgpaths to build and stored them in a
file, next step can start.
### Preparing the environment
As the compilation is done on the real system (using PORTS_PRIVSEP
though) and not in a chroot we need to clean all packages installed
except the minimum required for the build infrastructure, which are
rsync and sqlports.
`dpb(1)` can't be used because it didn't gave good results for
building the delta of the packages between release and stable.
The various temporary directories used by the ports infrastructure
are cleaned to be sure the build starts in a clean environment.
### Compiling and creating the packages
This step is really simple. The ports infrastructure is used
to build the packages list we produced at step 2.
env SUBDIRLIST=package_list BULK=yes make package
In the script there is some code to manage the logs of the previous
batch but there is nothing more.
Every new run of the process will pass over all the packages which
received a commit, but the ports infrastructure is smart enough to
avoid rebuilding ports which already have a package with the correct
### Transfer the package to the signing team
Once the packages are built, we need to pass only the built
packages to the person who will manually sign the packages before
publishing them and have the mirrors to sync.
From the package list, the package file lists are generated and
reused by rsync to only copy the packages generated.
env SUBDIRLIST=package_list show=PKGNAMES make | grep -v "^=" | \
grep ^. | tr ' ' '\n' | sed 's,$,\.tgz,' | sort -u
**The system has all the -release packages in
`/usr/ports/packages/amd64/all`) to avoid rebuilding all dependencies
required for building a package update, thus we can't copy all the
packages from the directory where the packages are moved after
### Send a notification
Last step is to send an email with the output of rsync to send an
email telling which machine built which package to tell the people
signing the packages that some packages are available.
As this process is done on each machine and that they
don't necessarily build the same packages (no firefox on sparc64)
and they don't build at the same speed (arm64 is slower), mails
from the four machines could arrive at very different time, which
led to a small design change.
The whole process is automatic from building to delivering the
packages for signature. The signature step requires a human to be
done though, but this is the price for security and privilege
## Current design
In the original design, all the servers were running their separate
cron job, updating their own cvs ports tree and doing a very long
cvs diff. The result was working but not very practical for the
people signing who were receiving mails from each machine for each
The new design only changed one thing: One machine was chosen to
run the cron job, produce the package list and then will copy that
list to the other machines which update their ports tree and run
the build. Once all machines finished to build, the initiator machine
will gather outputs and send an unique mail with a summary of each
machine. This became easier to compare the output of each architecture
and once you receive the email this means every machine finished
their job and the signing can be done.
Having the summary of all the building machines resulted in another
improvement: In the logic of the script, it is possible to send an
email telling absolutely no package has been built while the process
was triggered, which means, something went wrong. From here, I
need to check the logs to understand why the last commit didn't
produce a package. This can be failures like a **distinfo** file
update forgotten in the commit.
Also, this permitted fixing one issue: As the distfiles are shared
through a common NFS mount point, if multiples machines try to fetch
a distfile at the same time, both will fail to build. Now, the
initiator machine will download all the required distfiles before
starting the build on every node.
All of the previous scripts were reused, except the one
sending the email which had to be rewritten.